The Tressour Crispinette C.1350 - 1405
The "Crispinette" (or "Caul") came into
fashion in the second half of the 13th century (1250). It was originally
known as the "Crispine," which was a network cap to confine the hair.
These caps were shaped like bags or like hairnets (Which you can buy from
"Boots the Chemist" today.) They were made of gold, silver or coloured silk.
By the 14th century, the "Crispine" became the
"Crispinette" and where the hair in the
previous century was worn in a net at the back of the head, at the nape,
it was now worn over the ears either in two coiled plaits or coiled into
two gold cauls held by a fillet (a narrow bar of metal in gold or silver
or embroidery according to the position of the wearer) This was the
Women of the 14th century attached great importance to the dressing of
their hair and wanted to be in the height of fashion. Princess Isabella
(Known as the "she wolf of France") brought this fashion to the English
court when she married Prince Edward II, and because of her status it
became fashionable to dress hair in this way.
All levels of society wore the
"Crispinette". (A simpler form of Crispinette
was worn by the middle and lower classes, where their hair took on the shape
of "rams horns" plaited and coiled underneath their veils and head coverings.)
By the time of Edward III 1327-1377, it was still worn highly decorated
with a full veil by women and had changed shape by having a taller sweeping
fillet. This was known as the "Tressour Crispinette"
and became the predecessor of the "Heart
Shaped Hennin" from the early 15th century. In England the Tressour
Crispinette can be referred to as 'Crepin, Cresine, and Tressure'. Tressour
Crispinettes are also known as 'Tressours' or 'Tressures.' In Venice
it was referred as 'Dressadori' and in Tuscany known as 'Intrezzatoi' or
other terms are 'Tresson, tressoir, tressador, fresadura.' One Tressour
Crispinette was worn with 175 pearls, with little blue and red Bosses
or rosettes (like clusters of jewels about the fillet).
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